Cell Activity in Plants
Plants are living organisms that perform the chemical process of photosynthesis. This means that they produce their own food, and do not need to eat like animals. Like all living organisms, plants are made up of cells. They range from the single-celled algae to the multi-cellular, or many-celled, plants such as ferns, flowering plants and trees. Plants must have the ability to perform important reactions like making proteins and respiration to make energy, as well as be able to photosynthesise. Therefore, their cells must have the ability to perform these processes. Plants, like animals, have different organs, which have different functions within the plant. Plant organs include the leaf, stem and root. The cells that make up these organs have specialised structures to enable them to perform their role efficiently. We say that these cells are adapted.
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Curriculum and Exam Board Information
- cell wall - provides support
- Cells adapted to different functions (e.g. palisade cells)
- chloroplasts - absorb light energy for photosynthesis
- describe the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells: chloroplasts, cell wall, large, permanent vacuole in plant cells only
- describe the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells: nucleus, membrane, cytoplasm in plant and animal cells
- Diffusion into and out of leaves via stomata
- Effect of atmospheric conditions on transpiration
- Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
- Gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere
- know the differences: cell wall and large vacuole as distinguishing features of most plant cells
- Photosynthesis using sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll
- Plant cells also have a cell wall which strengthens the cell
- Plant cells often have a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap.
- Plant cells often have chloroplasts which absorb light energy to make food
- PLANT NUTRITION
- Structure of a Plant Cell
- SUBSTANCES ENTER AND LEAVE CELLS THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE
- The need for mineral ions by plants
- The role of water in turgor and support
- The structure of a leaf
- Transport of sugars and amino acids via phloem
- Transport of water and mineral ions via xylem
- understand that cells become specialised to carry out different functions to include ciliated epithelium in animals
- understand that cells become specialised to carry out different functions to include palisade mesophyll in plants
- understand that cells become specialised to carry out different functions to include sperm cell in animals
- understand that cells become specialised to carry out different functions to include the root hair in plants
- understand the role of hormones in plants, including phototropism as a growth movement in the response to light
- Uptake of mineral ions by active transport
- Uses of the glucose produced by photosynthesis
- Water taken in by osmosis
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