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Subjects / Additional Science / OCR Gateway Additional Science B

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Price: £2.95 Duration: 37mins Full topic price: £89.95

The electrons in the outside shells of atoms are responsible for bonding. Therefore, it is important to know how many electrons there are in the outside shell of each atom. There are three types of chemical bond: metal atoms join to non-metal atoms by ionic bonding, non-metal atoms join to other non-metal atoms by covalent bonding, and metal atoms join by metallic bonding. By understanding how atoms join together on an individual basis, we can build up a picture of how millions of atoms join together, and relate this to the physical properties of the material.

Author: Mike Ryan Publisher: GCSEPod®
Narrator: Pauline Addis ISBN: 978-1-84906-183-4
Video ISBN: 978-1-84906-683-9


  1. Theories about Chemical Bonding
  2. Dot-and-Cross Diagrams
  3. Ions and Ionic Bonds
  4. Ionic Compounds
  5. Electrolysis
  6. Covalent Bonds
  7. Molecules and Giant Covalent Structures
  8. Metallic Bonds
  9. Properties and Uses of Metals

Exam Board Relevance

  • Edxcel
  • AQA
  • CEA
  • IGCSE (EdExcel)
  • OCR
  • SQA
  • WJEC
  • IGCSE (CiE)

Includes original GCSEPod image art. Additional pictorial images created by Damon Smith

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Curriculum and Exam Board Information

Key Issues



  • All the atoms in these structures are linked to other atoms by strong covalent bonds and so they have very high melting points
  • An ionic compound is a giant structure of ions
  • Any stoichiometrically correct equations for cathode and anode reactions will be accepted. Examples should be drawn from electrolytic processes specifically covered in the syllabus
  • At the negative electrode, positively charged ions gain electrons (reduction) and at the positive electrode, negatively charged ions lose electrons (oxidation)
  • Atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged ions
  • Atoms that lose electrons become positively charged ions
  • Atoms that share electrons can also form giant structures or macromolecules
  • Chemical Bonding
  • Chemical bonding involves either transferring or sharing electrons in the highest occupied energy levels (shells) of atoms
  • Chemical bonding involves transfer or sharing of electrons
  • classify substances in terms of their properties as metallic; ionic; covalent molecular or giant covalent (including graphite, diamond and quartz)
  • Compounds
  • Compounds are substances in which atoms of two, or more, elements are not just mixed together but chemically combined
  • Copper
  • Copper can be purified by electrolysis using a positive electrode made of the impure copper and a negative electrode of pure copper in a solution containing copper ions
  • Covalent bonding in giant structures
  • Covalent bonding in simple molecules and giant structures
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Covalent bonds are formed between non-metals
  • Delocalised Electrons
  • describe electrolysis in terms of ionic reactions
  • describe in simple terms, the bonding in metals
  • describe the formation of a covalent bond in terms of sharing electron pairs. Examples should include Cl2, O2, H2O and CH4
  • describe the formation of an ionic bond in terms of electron transfer and recognise that bond formation is the result of attraction between ions of opposite charge and is typical of metal compounds
  • describe the typical properties of ionic solids, i.e. hard, brittle, high melting, crystalline solids which conduct electricity when molten or in solution, to include solubilities of chlorides nitrates, sulphates, carbonates, hydroxides and oxides as prov
  • Diamond
  • Diamond and Graphite (forms of carbon) and silicon dioxide (silica) are examples of giant covalent structures (lattices) of atoms
  • Differences between the properties of simple molecular and giant covalent substances
  • Dot and cross diagrams of simple molecules
  • During electrolysis, positively charged ions move to the negative electrode, and negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements combine to form compounds
  • Examples should include MgO, NaCl and CaCl2
  • Examples should include the molten halide salts LiCl and PbBr2 and solutions limited to sulphuric acid (dilute) and sodium chloride (concentrated)
  • explain that atoms share or transfer electrons in order to get a complete outer shell
  • explain the electrical conductivity, malleability, hardness and high melting point of metals in terms of metallic bonding (ions held strongly in mobile electrons)
  • explain the properties and uses of typical ionic, covalent (simple and giant) and metallic substances in terms of their chemical bonding and structures
  • Formation of covalent bonds by sharing electrons
  • Formation of ionic compounds by transfer of electrons
  • Formation of ions from atoms in ionic compounds
  • give a simple explanation of electrolysis and examples of its use, i.e. recognize that some substances can be broken down into simpler substances by an electric current
  • Graphite
  • If there is a mixture of ions, the products formed depend on the reactivity of the elements involved
  • In diamond, each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with other carbon atoms in a giant covalent structure, so diamond is very hard
  • In graphite, each carbon atom bonds to three others, forming layers. The laters are free to slide over each other and so graphite is soft and slippery
  • In graphite, one electron from each carbon atom is delocalised
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Ionic bonds are formed between metals and non-metals
  • Ionic Compounds
  • Ionic compounds are held together by strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions
  • Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices)in which there are strong electrostatic forces in all directions between oppositely charged ions
  • Ionic Substances in Water
  • Ions
  • Ions from atoms
  • Ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas (Group O)
  • It is these intermolecular forces that are overcome, not the covalent bonds, when the substance melts or boils
  • Layers of Atoms
  • Macromolecules
  • Metals conduct heat and electricity because of the delocalised electrons in their structures
  • Metals consist of giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern
  • Others have giant covalent structures (macromolecules), such as diamond and silicon oxide
  • Passing an electric current through ionic substances that are molten or in solution breaks them down into elements. This process is called electrolysis
  • Positive and Negative Electrodes
  • predict the products of simple electrolytic reactions
  • Production of hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide by electrolysis
  • Properties of giant covalent structures
  • Properties of ionic compounds
  • Properties of simple molecular substances
  • Reactions at Electrodes
  • Reactions at electrodes can be represented by half equations
  • Reagents
  • recall that atoms in compounds are held together by bonds (ionic and covalent)
  • recall the characteristic properties of ionic and compounds
  • recognise covalent bonding as typical of non-metal elements and compounds
  • recognise that when atoms share electrons, the bond formed is called covalent
  • recognise that when atoms transfer electrons the bond formed is called ionic
  • recognise that, in electrolysis, conduction occurs through the movement of ions, that positive ions are discharged at the cathode and that negative ions are discharged at the anode
  • Sharing of electrons to form molecules with covalent bonds
  • Sodium hydroxide solution is also produced
  • Some covalently bonded substances consist of simple molecules such as H2, Cl2, O2, HCl, H2O and CH4
  • Substances that consist of simple molecules only have weak forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces)
  • The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution produces hydrogen and chlorine
  • The electrons in the highest occupied energy levels (outer shell) of metal atoms are delocalised and so free to move through the whole structure
  • The idea of preferential discharge is limited to the electrolysis of sulphuric acid (dilute) and sodium chloride (concentrated)
  • The lattice structure of ionic compounds
  • The layers of atoms in metals are able to slide over each other and so metals can be bent and shaped
  • Theories (ideas) about chemical bonding
  • These are important reagents for the chemical industry
  • These compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and carry the current
  • These delocalised electrons allow graphite to conduct heat and electricity
  • These forces act in all directions in the lattice and is called ionic bonding
  • This corresponds to a structure of positive ions with electrons between the ions holding them together by strong electrostatic attractions
  • This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons and the atoms are held together by chemical bonds
  • This is called electrolysis and can happen when the substance is molten or dissolved in water
  • Transfer of electrons to form ions and ionic bonds
  • understand the terms anode, cathode and electrolyte
  • When an ionic substance is melted or dissolved in water, the ions are free to move about within the liquid or solution
  • When atoms form chemical bonds by transferring electrons, they form ions
  • When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds. These bonds between atoms are strong
  • When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds
  • When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and carry the current


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