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Extraction and Uses of Metals

Subjects / Additional Science / OCR Gateway Additional Science B

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Price: £3.45 Duration: 43mins Full topic price: £89.95

Metals are an important part of the history of humankind. The first stage in using a metal is to remove it from its ore, a metal-bearing mineral or rock. Most ores are oxides, so we need to find ways to remove oxygen from the metal oxide. This is called reduction. The most reactive metals are the hardest to extract, so sometimes a metal might be expensive, even though it is not particularly rare. Aluminium and iron are two important metals. We will learn about how they are extracted from their ores. Almost all iron is converted into steel. We will consider how various metals, metal alloys and metal compounds are useful to us. The title will also look at how metal extraction can cause environmental problems and how the recycling of metals can help to reduce this.

Author: Mike Ryan Publisher: GCSEPod®
Narrator: Pauline Addis ISBN: 978-1-84906-230-5
Video ISBN: 978-1-84906-730-0

Chapters

  1. Oxidation and Reduction
  2. Blast Furnaces and the Extraction of Iron
  3. Making Steel Out of Iron
  4. Aluminium and Purified Bauxite
  5. Electrolysis and the Purification of Copper
  6. Recycling Metals
  7. Impacts of Exploiting Metal Ores
  8. Uses of Various Metals
  9. Smart Alloys and Metal Compounds
  10. Paints and Pigments

Exam Board Relevance

  • Edxcel
  • AQA
  • CEA
  • IGCSE (EdExcel)
  • OCR
  • SQA
  • WJEC
  • IGCSE (CiE)

Includes original GCSEPod image art. Additional pictorial images created by Damon Smith

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Curriculum and Exam Board Information

Key Issues

Titles

Chapters

  • Alloys
  • Alloys can be designed to have properties for specific uses. Low carbon steels are easily shaped, high carbon steels are hard, and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion
  • Aluminium and Titanium
  • aluminium: electrical wiring, saucepans, alloys
  • be able to interpret data about metal properties from various sources (for example tables, graphs, websites)
  • be able to relate simple metal properties to their uses (for example, hardness, density, electrical and thermal conductivity, melting point, corrosion resistance)
  • be able to use a particle model of metallic structure to explain why atoms of different sizes in alloys affect the strength, hardness and malleability
  • be able to write a word equation for the reduction of haematite (iron (III) oxide)
  • Copper
  • Copper can be extracted by electrolysis of solutions containing copper compounds
  • Copper has properties that make it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing
  • copper: electrical wiring, plumbing, brass, coinage
  • Current methods of extraction are handy because there are many stages in the processes and much energy is needed
  • describe and explain the processes involved in the purification of copper by electrolysis of copper sulphate solution using copper electrodes and the extraction of aluminium from pure aluminium oxide
  • describe the important chemical properties of a range of metals: calcium. Limited to its reactions with oxygen, water/steam, dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids as appropriate
  • describe the important chemical properties of a range of metals: copper. Limited to its reactions with oxygen, water/steam, dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids as appropriate
  • describe the important chemical properties of a range of metals: iron. Limited to its reactions with oxygen, water/steam, dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids as appropriate
  • describe the important chemical properties of a range of metals: magnesium. Limited to its reactions with oxygen, water/steam, dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids as appropriate
  • describe the important chemical properties of a range of metals: sodium. Limited to its reactions with oxygen, water/steam, dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids as appropriate
  • describe the important physical properties of a range of metals: calcium. Physical properties of metal to include electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, lustre, strength, melting point (qualitative treatment)
  • describe the important physical properties of a range of metals: copper. Physical properties of metal to include electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, lustre, strength, melting point (qualitative treatment)
  • describe the important physical properties of a range of metals: iron. Physical properties of metal to include electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, lustre, strength, melting point (qualitative treatment)
  • describe the important physical properties of a range of metals: magnesium. Physical properties of metal to include electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, lustre, strength, melting point (qualitative treatment)
  • describe the important physical properties of a range of metals: sodium. Physical properties of metal to include electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, lustre, strength, melting point (qualitative treatment)
  • describe the important physical properties of calcium
  • describe the important physical properties of copper
  • describe the important physical properties of iron
  • describe the important physical properties of magnesium
  • describe the important physical properties of sodium
  • Electrolysis and electrolytes
  • Extracting Iron
  • Extracting Metals from Ores
  • Extracting Metals Using Blast Furnaces
  • Extracting Metals Using Carbon
  • Extracting Unreactive Metals from Ores
  • Extraction of aluminium by electrolysis
  • Extraction of aluminium from purified bauxite
  • Extraction of iron from iron ore in a blast furnace
  • Extraction of iron in the blast furnace
  • Extraction of metals involves reduction
  • interpret and construct, given suitable information, symbol equations to describe the reduction of iron from iron oxide and lead from lead oxide
  • interpret data about the environmental effects of waste products from metal extraction from ores (for example disposal of solid waste, the hazardous nature of waste gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide from sulphide ores)
  • Iron from the blast furnace contains about 96% iron. The impurities make it brittle and so it has limited uses
  • iron: steel manufacture, steel structures, ornamental gates, cookers, nails
  • lead: roofing, batteries, solder, anti-knock
  • Low density and resistance to corrosion make aluminium and titanium useful metals
  • magnesium: high strength alloys for aircraft, flares
  • Making Steel Out of Iron
  • Metals are extracted from ores in the Earth
  • Metals that are less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon, for example iron oxide is reduced in the blast furnace to make iron
  • Most iron is converted into steels
  • Most metals in everyday use are alloys
  • New ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores are being researched to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining
  • Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal and this changes over time
  • outline the effects of large scale extraction on the local environment and community, e.g. jobs
  • outline the effects of large scale extraction on the local environment and community, e.g. landscape
  • outline the effects of large scale extraction on the local environment and community, e.g. transport
  • outline the effects of large scale extraction on the local environment and community, e.g. waste disposal
  • Oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons regarding metals
  • Oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen regarding metals
  • Physical properties of metals to include electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility, lustre, strength, melting point (qualitative treatment).
  • Pure copper, gold and aluminium are too soft for many uses and so are mixed with small amounts of similar metals to make them harder for everyday use
  • Pure iron has a regular arrangement of atoms, with layers that can slide over each other, and so is soft and easily shaped, but too soft for many uses
  • Purification of copper by electrolysis
  • Purification of copper by electrolysis
  • recall that metals are strong, tough, and are good conductors of heat and electricity
  • recall uses for iron, copper and aluminium to illustrate the properties of these metals
  • Recycling Metals
  • Reduction as the loss of oxygen in terms of metals
  • relate important oxidation and reduction reactions to everyday examples and manufacturing processes, limited to aluminium manufacture
  • relate important oxidation and reduction reactions to everyday examples and manufacturing processes, limited to combustion of fuels
  • relate important oxidation and reduction reactions to everyday examples and manufacturing processes, limited to Haber Process
  • relate important oxidation and reduction reactions to everyday examples and manufacturing processes, limited to iron manufacture
  • relate important oxidation and reduction reactions to everyday examples and manufacturing processes, limited to rusting
  • Relationship between the method of extracting a metal and its position in the reactivity series
  • Removing all of the impurities would produce pure iron
  • Smart Alloys
  • Smart alloys can return to their original shape after being deformed
  • SMART MATERIALS
  • Some everyday uses of iron/steel, aluminium and copper
  • state advantages and disadvantages of metal recycling
  • state examples of how scientists minimise the effect of metal extraction, for example, gas scrubbing
  • state examples of how scientists minimise the effect of metal extraction, for example, treatment of contaminated water
  • state examples of how scientists minimise the effect of metal extraction, for example, use of waste carbon monoxide for heating fuel
  • state one use for gold and one use for sulphur
  • state that an ore is a mixture of a mineral and surrounding rock
  • state that gold is a metal and sulphur is a non-metal which can be found in the ground uncombined
  • state that iron can be extracted from iron ore by heating with carbon
  • state that more reactive metals (for example lead and iron) occur naturally as compounds and need to be extracted by chemical methods
  • state that most chemical substances are found in the Earth as compounds and are in mixtures that require separation
  • Steels are alloys since they are mixtures of iron with carbon and other metals
  • The different sized atoms added distort the layers in the structure of the pure metal, making it more difficult for them to slide over each other and so alloys are harder
  • THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF METALS
  • The reactivity series and the methods of extracting metals
  • The supply of copper-rich ores is limited
  • The uses of aluminium
  • These metals cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon
  • understand rusting as the reaction of iron with a combination of water and air to produce hydrated iron(III) oxide. Sacrificial protection related to the reactivity series
  • Unreactive metals such as gold are found in the Earth as the metal itself but most metals are found as compounds that require chemical reactions to extract the metal
  • We should recycle metals because extracting them uses limited resources and its expensive in terms of energy and effects on the environment
  • zinc: galvanising, brass

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