Foods, Medicines and Emulsions
Chemistry can help us to understand some of the issues concerning food and medicine. For example, fermentation is a chemical process that uses the enzymes from yeast. Sugars are converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide. This reaction is used to make alcoholic drinks and bread rise. Through history, humankind has found remedies for illnesses. Willow is useful for relieving pain. Originally, this was used in the form of a soup. Later, other painkilling drugs were discovered. Science has also helped us to understand traditional methods of making foods such as cheese and yoghurt. There is a huge industry associated with making food attractive to eat, and this title will consider this. We will also learn that preservatives can give food a longer shelf-life. The special food needs of babies and slimmers can also be addressed by chemistry.
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Curriculum and Exam Board Information
- Artificial colours can be detected by identifying chromatography
- Chemical analysis can be used to identify additives in foods
- Emulsions are thicker than oil or water and have many uses that depend on their special properties
- Emulsions provide better texture, coating ability and appearance, for example in salad dressings and ice cream
- Extracting Oil from Fruit, Seeds and Nuts
- Oils can be used to produce emulsions
- Oils do not dissolve in water
- Processed foods may contain additives to improve appearance, taste and shelf-life
- recognise that we use things such as medicines on a smaller scale and that this requires small specialist production
- Some fruits, seeds and nuts are rich in oils that can be extracted
- state that some substances are produced on a very small scale in the chemical industry and are called fine or speciality chemicals
- The hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room temperature, making them useful as spreads and in cakes and pastries
- The plant material is crushed and the oil removed by pressing or in some cases by distillation. Water and other impurities are removed
- These additives must be listed in the ingredients and some permitted additives were given E-numbers
- Unsaturated vegetable oils
- Vegetable Oils
- Vegetable oils also provide us with nutrients
- Vegetable oils are important foods and fuels as they provide a lot of energy
- Vegetable oils can be detected using bromine or iodine
- Vegetable oils that are unsaturated can be hardened by reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at about 60°C
- Vegetable oils that are unsaturated contain double carbon carbon bonds
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