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Working Conditions and Improvements, 1700-1850

Subjects / History / Agriculture, Industry and Transport 1700-1900

Price: £2.95 Duration: 28mins Full topic price: £10.95

Would you rather be in a classroom or working a twelve-hour day in a cotton factory or a mine? If you were a child between 1700 and 1850, you probably wouldn't have much choice. When the industrial revolution began, it revolutionised industry and changed the way we lived and worked forever. Before the revolution most people lived in small villages and made money by making items such as cloth from their home. This was known as 'cottage industry'. But the invention of water-powered machines led to the development of factories. These factories could produce cloth in larger quantities and more cheaply than the cottage worker. In order to survive, many families moved to the new industrial towns to work in the factories, where working conditions were harsh.

Author: Amy Walker Publisher: GCSEPod®
Narrator: Peter McGowan ISBN: 978-1-84906-229-9
Video ISBN: 978-1-84906-729-4

Chapters

  1. Conditions in Factories and Mines: The Growing Problem of Poverty
  2. The Nature and Extent of Opposition to Factory and Mines Reform
  3. The Nature, Scope and Impact of Legislation on Conditions in Factories and Mines
  4. The Movement for Factory Reform: Sadler, Shaftesbury and Chadwick
  5. The Reactions and Impact of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834

Exam Board Relevance

  • Edxcel
  • AQA
  • CEA
  • IGCSE (EdExcel)
  • OCR
  • SQA
  • WJEC
  • IGCSE (CiE)

Includes original GCSEPod image art. Additional pictorial images created by Damon Smith

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Curriculum and Exam Board Information

Key Issues

Titles

Chapters

  • Allowance systems including Speenhamland and Roundsman
  • Attitudes to change
  • Changes in poor law relief and the importance of the Poor Law Amendment Act
  • Changes in the second half of the century
  • Changing attitudes to poverty in the second half of the nineteenth century, the work of individuals including Charles Booth
  • Changing attitudes to poverty in the second half of the nineteenth century, the work of individuals including Dr Barnardo
  • Changing attitudes to poverty in the second half of the nineteenth century, the work of individuals including Mayhew
  • Changing attitudes to poverty in the second half of the nineteenth century, the work of individuals including Rowntree
  • Changing attitudes to poverty in the second half of the nineteenth century, the work of individuals including William Booth
  • Changing attitudes towards government intervention in working conditions
  • Changing economic and social conditions
  • changing opportunities in employment for men and women.
  • Child labour
  • conditions in coal and textiles
  • Conditions in workhouses
  • Conditions relating to health, hours of employment, pay
  • Cost reduced
  • Cruelty, especially amongst children
  • Differing attitudes of factory owners to their workers
  • differing opportunities for men and women
  • Difficulty of implementing the law
  • Discontent among the poor, e.g. increasing costs of poor relief
  • Discontent among the poor, e.g. Swing Riots
  • Education for the working class; church and government involvement
  • Effects of the Elizabethan Poor Law
  • Effects of trade slumps
  • Gilbert's Act
  • Government legislation
  • Growth of population
  • Impact of French Wars and post war distress
  • Increasing urbanisation
  • Indoor relief
  • Legislation, 1833-1850, relating to factories and mines
  • Less eligibility
  • Living and working conditions of the urban poor
  • Methods of dealing with the poor before 1834
  • Moves towards reform in factories and mines through legislation and by individuals such as Lord Althorp
  • Moves towards reform in factories and mines through legislation and by individuals such as Richard Oastler
  • Moves towards reform in factories and mines through legislation and by individuals such as Robert Owen
  • Moves towards reform in factories and mines through legislation and by individuals such as the Earl of Shaftesbury
  • New and declining industries; the reasons for the decline of the 'old' industries
  • New and declining industries; the reasons for the growth of the 'new' industries
  • Owen and New Lanark
  • Poverty in the early nineteenth century, its causes and its relief
  • Poverty in the early nineteenth century: methods of poor relief
  • Reactions to the 1834 Act
  • Reactions to the New Poor Law
  • Reactions to the New Poor Law from different sections of society
  • Reactions to the New Poor Law from the different groups in society
  • Reasons for industrial conditions
  • Resistance of many factory owners to legislation
  • Setting up of the Royal Commission
  • The 1834 Act and its subsequent operation
  • The Acts affecting working conditions in factories and mines during this period
  • The administration of the New Poor Law
  • The campaigns of Oastler
  • The campaigns of Shaftesbury
  • The causes and consequences of emigration
  • the changing nature of work
  • The changing nature of work in the twentieth century
  • The Church of England and its attitude to, and relationship with the poor
  • The criticisms of the Old Poor Law and changing attitudes towards poverty and the poor, including utilitarianism
  • the decline of manual labour
  • The different methods of poor relief
  • The efforts of Christian churches, especially the Methodists, to help the poor, their mixed motives in doing so
  • The efforts of specific Christian individuals to effect social reform such as Elizabeth Fry
  • The findings of the Royal Commission
  • The impact of government legislation of 1833, 1844 and 1847, and the work of individuals such as Oastler on improving working conditions
  • The impact of government legislation of 1833, 1844 and 1847, and the work of individuals such as Owen at New Lanark on improving working conditions
  • The impact of government legislation of 1833, 1844 and 1847, and the work of individuals such as Shaftesbury on improving working conditions
  • The impact of industrialisation on living conditions in towns
  • The importance of legislation in improving conditions in factories
  • The nature of poverty in the early nineteenth century, including a case study of the Swing Riots
  • The nature of poverty in the first part of the 19th Century
  • The need to change the system
  • The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834: aims and rationale
  • The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834: implementation
  • The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834; aims and rationale
  • The reactions of rich and poor to the old poor law system
  • the regional impact of change
  • The role of groups and individuals in promoting reforms, including Shaftesbury
  • The social structure in the first part of the 19th Century
  • the sweated trades and domestic service
  • The work of Chadwick
  • The work of Edwin Chadwick
  • Workers' responses to change, including the Luddites
  • Workhouse Test
  • Workhouse Unions
  • Working conditions at the end of the nineteenth century
  • Working conditions in factories and mines for men, women and children
  • the changing structure of industry

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